Harrington Wells, PhD

Harrington Wells, PhD
Coordinator of Graduate Studies for Biology
Professor of Biological Science
College of Engineering & Natural Sciences
Biological Science
918-631-3071 Oliphant Hall Room 330-A


PhD – University of California-Santa Barbara BA – Occidental College

Research Interests

Behavioral Ecology
Population Ecology
Population Genetics

Teaching Interests

Environmental Biology
Population Ecology
Population Genetics
General Genetics
Experimental Design


Journal Articles

  • Tugrul, Giray et al. “Effect of Octopamine Manipulation on Honeybee Decision Making: Reward and Cost Differences Associated with Foraging.” Animal Behaviour 100 (2015): 144–150. Print.

  • Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats. Vol. 12, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015, pp. 6148-61.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers Than in Pork and Other Beef Cuts. Vol. 4, Pathogens, 2015, pp. 182-98.
  • Abramson, Charles et al. “The Effect of Ethanol on Reversal Learning in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera Anatolica): Response Inhibition in a Social Insect Model.” Alcohol 49 (2015): 245–258. Print.

  • Craig, D., C. Varnon, M. Sokolowski, H. Wells, and C. Abramson. An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance. Vol. 9, PLoS ONE, 2014, p. e101262.
  • Amaya-Márquez, Marisol, Peggy S. M. Hill, Charles I. Abramson and Harrington Wells. 2014. Honey bee location- and time-linked memory use in novel foraging situations: floral color dependency. Insects 5:243-269.

  • Amaya-Márquez, Marisol et al. “Honey Bee Location- and Time-Linked Memory Use in Novel Foraging Situations: Floral Color Dependency. .” Insects 5 (2014): 243–269. Print

  • Dinges, Christopher et al. “Aversive Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera Anatolica): A Comparison of Drones and Workers.” Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (2013): 4124–4134. Print.

  • Sanderson, Charlotte E., Peyton Cook, Peggy S. M. Hill, Benjamin S. Orozco, Harrington Wells and Charles I. Abramson. 2013. Nectar quality perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica). Journal of Comparative Psychology 127: 341-251. DOI:10.1037/a0032613

  • Sanderson, Charlotte E., Peyton Cook, Peggy S. M. Hill, Benjamin S. Orozco, Harrington Wells and Charles I. Abramson. 2013. Nectar quality perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica). Journal of Comparative Psychology 127: 341-251. DOI:10.1037/a0032613

  • Amaya-Márquez, Marisol, Peggy S. M. Hill, John F. Barthell, L. Lisa Pham, Dale R. Doty and Harrington Wells. 2008. Learning and memory during foraging of the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 81:315-327

  • Sanderson, Charlotte E., Benjamin S. Orozco, Peggy S. M. Hill and Harrington Wells. 2006. Honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) response to differences in handling time, reward and colours. Ethology, 112:937-946.

  • Hill, Peggy S. M., Harrington Wells and John R. Shadley. 2006. Singing from a constructed burrow: Why vary the shape of the burrow mouth? Journal of Orthoptera Research, 15:23-29.

  • Duncan, K., Jennings, E., Buck, P., Wells, H., Kolhatkar, R., Sublette, K.L., Potter, W.T., and Todd, T., “Multi-Species Ecotoxicity Assessment of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil”, Soil and Sediment Contamination, 12 (2), 181-206 (2003)

  • Hill, Peggy S. M., Jeremy Hollis and Harrington Wells. 2001. Foraging decisions in nectarivores: unexpected interactions between flower constancy and energetic rewards. Animal Behaviour, 62:729-737.

  • Wells, Harrington, Ibrahim Çakmak, Philip Coburn, Michael Athens and Peggy S. M. Hill. 2000. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) use of color and pattern in making foraging choices.
    Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 73:195-207.

  • Çakmak, Ibrahim, Ram R. S. Rathore, Takashi Ohtani, Peggy S. Hill and Harrington Wells. 2000. The flower fidelity of honeybee foragers. Recent Research in Developmental Entomology, 3:15-28.

  • Cakmak, I., Cook, P., Hollis, J., Shah, N., Huntley, D., Van Valkenburg, D., and H. Wells (1999), “Africanized Honey Bee Response to Differences in Reward Frequency”, Journal of Apicultural Research, 38(3-4), pp. 125-136

  • Wells, H., Cakmak, I, Cook, P., and D. Van Valkenburg (1998), “Alternative Africanization Models for the Yucatan: Continued Discussion”, Bee World, pp. 106-111

  • Hill, Peggy S. M., Patrick H. Wells and Harrington Wells. 1997. Spontaneous flower constancy and learning in honey bees as a function of colour. Animal Behaviour, 54:615-627

  • Golm, Gregory T., Peggy Sue Hill and Harrington Wells. 1993. Life expectancy in a Tulsa cemetery: growth and population structure of the lichen Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia. American Midland Naturalist, 129:373-383.

  • Wells, Harrington, Peggy Sue Hill and Patrick H. Wells. 1991. Nectarivore foraging ecology: rewards differing in sugar types. Ecological Entomology, 17:280-288.

  • Wells, H. Wells, P. H., and P. Cook (1989), “The Importance of Overwinter Aggregation for Reproductive Success of Monarch Butterflies (anaus plexippus)”, The Journal of Theoretical Biology, pp. 115-131

Book Chapters

  • Hill, Peggy S. M. and Harrington Wells. 2002. Individual constancy to color by foraging honey bees. pp. 51-54. Chapter 12. In: Teaching Animal Behavior in Laboratory and Field. B.J. Ploger and K. Yasukawa, eds. New York, Academic Press.


  • Hill, P. S. M., Hoffart, C. and Buchheim, M. 2002. Tracing relationships in the Gryllotalpidae. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42:1244.

  • Wells, H., J. Lamb, J. Petrikin and P.S. Hill. 1994. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) use of flower form and pigment patterns in making foraging choices. American Zoologist, 34:116A.

  • Hill, P.S., P.H. Wells and H. Wells. 1994. Honeybee flower constancy: behaviour in the games we invite them to play. American Zoologist, 34:116A.

  • Hill, P. S., H. Wells and P. H. Wells. 1991. Reward quality and foraging patterns of bumblebees. American Zoologist, 31:9A.

  • Wells, H., P. S. Hill* and P. H. Wells. 1990. Effect of rewards differing in types of sugar on honeybee (Apis mellifera) foraging behavior. American Zoologist, 30:92A

Courses Taught

  • The Environment and Humanity
  • Independent Study
  • Research Experience
  • Genetics
  • Population Ecology
  • Dissertation Research
  • Genetics Lab
  • Introduction to Biological Science

Awards & Honors

  • Fulbright Fellowship for study in Pakistan
  • Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture Fellowship