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Charles Brown PhD

Professor of Biological Science College of Engineering & Natural Sciences
Biological Science
918-631-3943
charles-brown@utulsa.edu
Curriculum Vitae [PDF]
faculty-photo

Biography

Charles Brown's research centers broadly on the behavioral and disease ecology of birds, with a specific emphasis on (1) the evolution of social behavior and (2) how arboviruses affect the ecology of birds. Most of his work has been with a single population of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), highly social birds that breed in large colonies throughout most of western North America. His long-term project (currently 27 years) at a field site in western Nebraska is among the longest running, continuous field studies on birds in North America, and the number of individuals marked (currently over 187,000 swallows) is the largest of any mark-recapture study of birds in the world.

The cliff swallow project has sought to identify the causes of group living and to understand why breeding colonies vary in size. This has required measuring the costs and benefits of coloniality, which remains one of his major research emphases. Brown and his coworkers have investigated many of the major questions in behavioral ecology with cliff swallows, and we have used a variety of approaches. Their swallow work has included classical behavioral ecology observations and experiments, a large-scale mark-recapture project and associated demographic analyses, quantitative-genetic estimates of the heritability of behavioral traits, field endocrinological research on hormone levels, studies of selection, and analyses of alternative reproductive tactics including parentage studies. More recently, they have been studying how an RNA arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae), affects the ecology of cliff swallows and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) that are associated with swallow colonies. Thus, while Brown works primarily on cliff swallows, his research is conceptually broad.



Ph.D., Princeton University
M.S., Princeton University
B.A., Austin College


Social Behavior and Demography of Birds
Long-term Ecological Studies
Disease Ecology

Introductory and Field-based Ecology
Introductory and Advanced Ornithology
Biological Writing
Behavioral Ecology


The following may be selected publications rather than a comprehensive list.

Journal Articles


Runjaic, Jelena et al. “No Detectable Insecticide Resistance in Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Following Long-Term Exposure to Naled (Dibrom 8).” Journal of Medical Entomology 54.4 (2017): 994–998. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Fluctuating Survival Selection Explains Variation in Avian Group Size.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 113 (2016): 5113–5118. Print.

Brown, Charles. “The Ecology and Evolution of Colony-Size Variation.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70 (2016): 1613–1632. Print.

Hoogland, J., and Charles Brown. “Prairie Dogs Increase Fitness by Killing Interspecific Competitors.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283 (2016): 20160144. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Predation by Ants Controls Swallow Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus Vicarius) Infestations.” Journal of Vector Ecology 40.1 (2015): n. pag. Print.

Brown, Charles, and C. Page. “A Hybrid Cliff x Barn Swallow from Western Nebraska.” Nebraska Bird Review 83 (2015): 31–35. Print.

Brown, Charles, E. Roche, and V. O’Brien. “Costs and Benefits of Late Nesting in Cliff Swallows.” Oecologia 177 (2015): 413–421. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Ectoparasitism Shortens the Breeding Season in a Colonial Bird.” Royal Society Open Science 2 (2015): 140508. Print.

Brown, Charles, E. Roche, and M. Brown. “Parent‒Offspring Resemblance in Colony-Specific Adult Survival of Cliff Swallows.” Evolutionary Ecology 29 (2015): 537–550. Print.

Roche, E., M. Brown, and Charles Brown. “The Effect of Weather on Morphometric Traits of Juvenile Cliff Swallows.” Prairie Naturalist 46 (2014): 76–87. Print.

Brown, Charles, E. Roche, and M. Brown. “Variation in Age Composition among Colony Sizes in Cliff Swallows.” Journal of Field Ornithology 85 (2014): 289–300. Print.

Moore, A., and Charles Brown. “Dispersing Hemipteran Vectors Have Reduced Arbovirus Prevalence.” Biology Letters 10 (2014): 20140117. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Breeding Time in a Migratory Songbird Is Predicted by Drought Severity and Group Size.” Ecology 95 (2014): 2736–2744. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and E. Roche. “Spatial and Temporal Unpredictability of Colony Size in Cliff Swallows across 30 Years.” Ecological Monographs 83 (2013): 511–530. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Where Has All the Road Kill Gone?” Current Biology 23 (2013): R233–R234. Print.

Roche, E. et al. “Recapture Heterogeneity in Cliff Swallows: Increased Exposure to Mist Nets Leads to Net Avoidance.” PLOS ONE 8 (2013): e58092 (15 pp). Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and E. Roche. “Fluctuating Viability Selection on Morphology of Cliff Swallows Is Driven by Climate.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26 (2013): 1129–1142. Print.

Fassbinder-Orth, C., V. Barak, and Charles Brown. “Immune Responses of a Native and an Invasive Bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) and Its Arthropod Vector, the Swallow Bug (Oeciacus Vicarius).” PLOS ONE 8 (2013): e58045 (7 pp). Print.

Roche, E., and Charles Brown. “Among-Individual Variation in Vigilance at the Nest in Colonial Cliff Swallows.” Wilson Journal of Ornithology 125 (2013): 685–695. Print.

Brown, Charles, A. Moore, and V. O’Brien. “Prevalence of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in Insect Vectors Increases over Time in the Presence of an Invasive Avian Host.” Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12 (2012): 34–41. Print.

O’Brien, V., and Charles Brown. “Arbovirus Infection Is a Major Determinant of Fitness in House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus) That Invade Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota) Colonies.” Auk 129 (2012): 707–715. Print.

O’Brien, V., and Charles Brown. “Seasonal Variation and Age-Related Correlates of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae) Infection in Nestling House Sparrows.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48 (2012): 138–147. Print.

O’Brien, V. et al. “An Enzootic Vector-Borne Virus Is Amplified at Epizootic Levels by an Invasive Avian Host.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278 (2011): 239–246. Print.

O’Brien, V., and Charles Brown. “Group Size and Nest Spacing Affect Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) Infection in Nestling House Sparrows.” PLOS ONE 6 (2011): e25521 (8 pp.). Print.

Roche, E., Charles Brown, and M. Brown. “Heritable Choice of Colony Size in Cliff Swallows: Does Experience Trump Genetics in Older Birds?” Animal Behaviour 82 (2011): 1275–1285. Print.

Brown, Charles. “In Memoriam: Warren Mark Pulich, 1919–2010.” Auk 128 (2011): 429–430. Print.

Brown, M., and Charles Brown. “Intense Natural Selection on Morphology of Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota) a Decade Later: Did the Population Move between Adaptive Peaks?” Auk 128 (2011): 69–77. Print.

Padhi, A. et al. “Isolation by Distance Explains Genetic Structure of Buggy Creek Virus, a Bird-Associated Arbovirus.” Evolutionary Ecology 25 (2011): 403–416. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Natural Infection of Vertebrate Hosts by Different Lineages of Buggy Creek Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus).” Archives of Virology 155 (2010): 745–749. Print.

Brown, Charles. “How Cliff Swallows Choose Where to Live.” Phi Kappa Phi Forum 90.1 (2010): 4–7. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Winter Ecology of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) in the Central Great Plains.” Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10 (2010): 355–363. Print.

O’Brien, V. et al. “Prevalence and Pathology of West Nile Virus in Naturally Infected House Sparrows, Western Nebraska, 2008.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82 (2010): 937–944. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Persistence of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) for Two Years in Unfed Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus Vicarius).” Journal of Medical Entomology 47 (2010): 436–441. Print.

O’Brien, V. et al. “Pathology and Virus Detection in Tissues of Nestling House Sparrows Naturally Infected with Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae).” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46 (2010): 23–32. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Isolation of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) from Field-Collected Eggs of Oeciacus Vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).” Journal of Medical Entomology 46 (2009): 375–379. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Overwintering of Infectious Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in Oeciacus Vicarius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in North Dakota.” Journal of Medical Entomology 46 (2009): 391–394. Print.

Brown, M., and Charles Brown. “Blood Sampling Reduces Annual Survival in Cliff Swallows.” Auk 126 (2009): 853–861. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Ecological Divergence of Two Sympatric Lineages of Buggy Creek Virus, an Arbovirus Associated with Birds.” Ecology 90 (2009): 3168–3179. Print.

Brown, M., and Charles Brown. “Lithobates Catesbeianus (American Bullfrog) Predation on Cliff Swallows.” Herpetological Review 40 (2009): 206. Print.

O’Brien, V. et al. “No Evidence for Spring Re-Introduction of an Arbovirus by Cliff Swallows.” Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120 (2008): 910–913. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Host and Vector Movement Affects Genetic Diversity and Spatial Structure of Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae).” Molecular Ecology 17 (2008): 2164–2173. Print.

Huyvaert, K. et al. “Experimental Inoculation of House Sparrows (Passer Domesticus) with Buggy Creek Virus.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44 (2008): 331–340. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and K. Brazeal. “Familiarity with Breeding Habitat Improves Daily Survival in Colonial Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 76 (2008): 1201–1210. Print.

Gimenez, O. et al. “The Risk of Flawed Inference in Evolutionary Studies When Detectability Is Less than One.” American Naturalist 172 (2008): 441–448. Print.

Brown, M., and Charles Brown. “Terrapene Ornata (Ornate Box Turtle) Predation on Cliff Swallows.” Herpetological Review 39 (2008): 464. Print.

Padhi, A. et al. “Phylogeographical Structure and Evolutionary History of Two Buggy Creek Virus Lineages in the Western Great Plains of North America.” Journal of General Virology 89 (2008): 2122–2131. Print.

Moore, A. et al. “Ecological Correlates of Buggy Creek Virus Infection in Oeciacus Vicarius, Southwestern Nebraska, 2004.” Journal of Medical Entomology 44 (2007): 42–49. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Bird Movement Predicts Buggy Creek Virus Infection in Insect Vectors.” Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7 (2007): 304–314. Print.

Pfeffer, M. et al. “Phylogenetic Analysis of Buggy Creek Virus: Evidence for Multiple Clades in the Western Great Plains, United States of America.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72 (2006): 6886–6893. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Feather Mites Are Positively Associated with Daily Survival in Cliff Swallows.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 84 (2006): 1307–1314. Print.

Raouf, S. et al. “Glucocorticoid Hormone Levels Increase with Group Size and Parasite Load in Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 71 (2006): 39–48. Print.

Gimenez, O. et al. “Nonparametric Estimation of Natural Selection on a Quantitative Trait Using Capture-Mark-Recapture Data.” Evolution 60 (2006): 460–466. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Steroid Hormone Levels Are Related to Choice of Colony Size in Cliff Swallows.” Ecology 86 (2005): 2904–2915. Print.

Smith, L. et al. “Testosterone and Group Size in Cliff Swallows: Testing the ‘Challenge Hypothesis’ in a Colonial Bird.” Hormones and Behavior 47 (2005): 76–82. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Between-Group Transmission Dynamics of the Swallow Bug, Oeciacus Vicarius.” Journal of Vector Ecology 30 (2005): 137–143. Print.

Weaver, H., and Charles Brown. “Colony Size, Reproductive Success, and Colony Choice in Cave Swallows Petrochelidon Fulva.” Ibis 147 (2005): 381–390. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Effects of Endogenous Steroid Hormone Levels on Annual Survival in Cliff Swallows.” Ecology 86 (2005): 1034–1046. Print.

Weaver, H., and Charles Brown. “Brood Parasitism and Egg Transfer in Cave Swallows (Petrochelidon Fulva) and Cliff Swallows (P. Pyrrhonota) in South Texas.” Auk 121 (2004): 1122–1129. Print.

Brown, Charles, and D. Thomson. “Evolutionary Biology and Life Histories.” Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2004): 21–22. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Group Size and Ectoparasitism Affect Daily Survival Probability in a Colonial Bird.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56 (2004): 498–511. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Mark-Recapture and Behavioral Ecology: a Case Study of Cliff Swallows.” Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 27 (2004): 23–34. Print.

Covas, R. et al. “Juvenile and Adult Survival in the Sociable Weaver (Philetairus Socius), a Southern-Temperate Colonial Cooperative Breeder in Africa.” Auk 121 (2004): 1199–1207. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Empirical Measurement of Parasite Transmission between Groups in a Colonial Bird.” Ecology 85 (2004): 1619–1626. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Testis Size Increases with Colony Size in Cliff Swallows.” Behavioral Ecology 14 (2003): 569–575. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Multistate Estimates of Survival and Movement in Relation to Colony Size in the Sociable Weaver.” Behavioral Ecology 14 (2003): 463–471. Print.

Covas, R. et al. “Stabilizing Selection on Body Mass in the Sociable Weaver Philetairus Socius.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269 (2002): 1905–1909. Print.

Brown, Charles, C. Sas, and M. Brown. “Colony Choice in Cliff Swallows: Effects of Heterogeneity in Foraging Habitat.” Auk 119 (2002): 446–460. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Does Intercolony Competition for Food Affect Colony Choice in Cliff Swallows?” Condor 104 (2002): 117–128. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Ectoparasites Cause Increased Bilateral Asymmetry of Naturally Selected Traits in a Colonial Bird.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (2002): 1067–1075. Print.

Brown, Charles, and R. Sethi. “Mosquito Abundance Is Correlated with Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota) Colony Size.” Journal of Medical Entomology 39 (2002): 115–120. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Spleen Volume Varies with Colony Size and Parasite Load in a Colonial Bird.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269 (2002): 1367–1373. Print.

Møller, A. et al. “Immune Defense and Host Sociality: a Comparative Study of Swallows and Martins.” American Naturalist 158 (2001): 136–145. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Egg Hatchability Increases with Colony Size in Cliff Swallows.” Journal of Field Ornithology 72 (2001): 113–123. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station.” Occasional Papers of the Cedar Point Biological Station 1 (2001): 1–36. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Arbovirus Infection Increases with Group Size.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268 (2001): 1833–1840. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Heritable Basis for Choice of Group Size in a Colonial Bird.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97 (2000): 14825–14830. Print.

Price, T., Charles Brown, and M. Brown. “Evaluation of Selection on Cliff Swallows.” Evolution 54 (2000): 1824–1827. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and E. Danchin. “Breeding Habitat Selection in Cliff Swallows: the Effect of Conspecific Reproductive Success on Colony Choice.” Journal of Animal Ecology 69 (2000): 133–142. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Weather-Mediated Natural Selection on Arrival Time in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota).” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 47 (2000): 339–345. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Nest Spacing in Relation to Settlement Time in Colonial Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 59 (2000): 47–55. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Natural Selection on Tail and Bill Morphology in Barn Swallows Hirundo Rustica during Severe Weather.” Ibis 141 (1999): 652–659. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Seventeen Summers of Swallows.” Nebraska Magazine 95.2 (1999): 12–17. Print.

Davis, J., and Charles Brown. “Costs of Coloniality and the Effect of Colony Size on Reproductive Success in Purple Martins.” Condor 101 (1999): 737–745. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Fitness Components Associated with Clutch Size in Cliff Swallows.” Auk 116 (1999): 467–486. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Fitness Components Associated with Laying Date in the Cliff Swallow.” Condor 101 (1999): 230–245. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Intense Natural Selection on Body Size and Wing and Tail Asymmetry in Cliff Swallows during Severe Weather.” Evolution 52 (1998): 1461–1475. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Fitness Components Associated with Alternative Reproductive Tactics in Cliff Swallows.” Behavioral Ecology 9 (1998): 158–171. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Late Record of the Purple Martin for Oklahoma.” Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society 31 (1998): 33–34. Print.

Brown, Charles et al. “Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station Area, Keith and Garden Counties, Nebraska: Seasonal Occurrence and Breeding Data.” Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 23 (1996): 91–108. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and B. Rannala. “Ectoparasites Reduce Long-Term Survival of Their Avian Host.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 262 (1995): 313–319. Print.

Brown, Charles, and B. Rannala. “Colony Choice in Birds: Models Based on Temporally Invariant Site Quality.” 36 (1995): 221–228. Print.

Rannala, B., and Charles Brown. “Relatedness and Conflict over Optimal Group Size.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9 (1994): 117–119. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “First Record of the Cave Swallow for Nebraska.” Nebraska Bird Review 60 (1992): 36–40. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Ectoparasitism as a Cause of Natal Dispersal in Cliff Swallows.” Ecology 73 (1992): 1718–1723. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and A. Ives. “Nest Placement Relative to Food and Its Influence on the Evolution of Avian Coloniality.” American Naturalist 139 (1992): 205–217. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Selection of High-Quality Host Nests by Parasitic Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 41 (1991): 457–465. Print.

Brown, Charles, M. Brown, and M. Shaffer. “Food-Sharing Signals among Socially Foraging Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 42 (1991): 551–564. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “The Great Egg Scramble.” Natural History 2/90 (1990): 34–41. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Social Foraging in Cliff Swallows Revisited.” Animal Behaviour 39 (1990): 1216–1218. Print.

Brown, Charles, B. Stutchbury, and P. Walsh. “Choice of Colony Size in Birds.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5 (1990): 398–403. Print.

Brown, Charles, and L. Sherman. “Variation in the Appearance of Swallow Eggs and the Detection of Intraspecific Brood Parasitism.” Condor 91 (1989): 620–627. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Behavioural Dynamics of Intraspecific Brood Parasitism in Colonial Cliff Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 37 (1989): 777–796. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “How Many Swallows Make a Summer?” Nebraskaland 67.3 (1989): 6–13. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Enhanced Foraging Efficiency through Information Centers: a Benefit of Coloniality in Cliff Swallows.” Ecology 69 (1988): 602–613. Print.

Brown, M., and Charles Brown. “Access to Winter Food Resources by Bright- versus Dull-Colored House Finches.” Condor 90 (1988): 729–731. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “A New Form of Reproductive Parasitism in Cliff Swallows.” Nature 331 (1988): 66–68. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Social Foraging in Cliff Swallows: Local Enhancement, Risk Sensitivity, Competition, and the Avoidance of Predators.” Animal Behaviour 36 (1988): 780–792. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Genetic Evidence of Multiple Parentage in Broods of Cliff Swallows.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23 (1988): 379–387. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “The Costs and Benefits of Egg Destruction by Conspecifics in Colonial Cliff Swallows.” Auk 105 (1988): 737–748. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Group-Living in Cliff Swallows as an Advantage in Avoiding Predators.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 21 (1987): 97–107. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Ectoparasitism as a Cost of Coloniality in Cliff Swallows (Hirundo Pyrrhonota).” Ecology 67 (1986): 1206–1218. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Parasites and Their Effects on Colonies of Cliff Swallows.” Discovery 19 (1986): 8–13. Print.

Brown, Charles, and J. Hoogland. “Risk in Mobbing for Solitary and Colonial Swallows.” Animal Behaviour 34 (1986): 1319–1323. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Cliff Swallow Colonies as Information Centers.” Science 234 (1986): 83–85. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Vocalizations of Barn and Cliff Swallows.” Southwestern Naturalist 30 (1985): 325–333. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Vocalizations of the Purple Martin.” Condor 86 (1984): 433–442. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Light-Breasted Purple Martins Dominate Dark-Breasted Birds in a Roost: Implications for Female Mimicry.” Auk 101 (1984): 162–164. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Laying Eggs in a Neighbor’s Nest: Benefit and Cost of Colonial Nesting in Swallows.” Science 224 (1984): 518–519. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Vocalizations and Behavior of Violet-Green Swallows in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.” Wilson Bulletin 95 (1983): 142–145. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Mate Replacement in Purple Martins: Little Evidence for Altruism.” Condor 85 (1983): 106–107. Print.

Bitterbaum, E., and Charles Brown. “A Martin House Is Not a Home.” Natural History 90.5 (1981): 64–69. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Purple Martins Feeding on Cicadas.” Southwestern Naturalist 25 (1981): 553. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Reproductive Success of Purple Martins in Aluminum versus Wooden Birdhouses.” Journal of Field Ornithology 52 (1981): 148–149. Print.

Brown, Charles. “The Impact of Starlings on Purple Martin Populations in Unmanaged Colonies.” American Birds 35 (1981): 266–268. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Chimney Swift Tries to Steal Prey from Purple Martin.” Journal of Field Ornithology 51 (1980): 372–373. Print.

Brown, Charles, and E. Bitterbaum. “Implications of Juvenile Harassment in Purple Martins.” Wilson Bulletin 92 (1980): 452–457. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Recent Winter Records of Forster’s Terns for Lake Texoma.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 13 (1980): 25–26. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Sleeping Behavior of Purple Martins.” Condor 82 (1980): 170–175. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Chick Recognition in Purple Martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae).” Southwestern Naturalist 24 (1979): 683–685. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Territoriality in the Purple Martin.” Wilson Bulletin 91 (1979): 583–591. Print.

Brown, Charles, and S. Wolfe, III. “Post-Breeding Movements of Purple Martins in the Lake Texoma Area.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 11 (1978): 22–23. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Sexual Chase in Purple Martins.” Auk 95 (1978): 588–590. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Post-Fledging Behavior of Purple Martins.” Wilson Bulletin 90 (1978): 376–385. Print.

Brown, Charles. “On Early Spring Arrival of Purple Martins.” Bird-Banding 49 (1978): 130–133. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Juvenile Purple Martins: Field Identification and Post-Fledging Nest Defense.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 11 (1978): 25–27. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Inadequacies in the Design of Purple Martin Houses.” Bird-Banding 49 (1978): 321–325. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Double-Broodedness in Purple Martins in Texas.” Wilson Bulletin 90 (1978): 239–247, 657. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Clutch Size and Reproductive Success of Adult and Subadult Purple Martins.” Southwestern Naturalist 23 (1978): 597–604. Print.

Brown, Charles. “A Reinterpretation of the ‘Stooped-Submissive’ Posture in the Purple Martin.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 11 (1978): 47–48. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Starling Feeding Purple Martins.” Southwestern Naturalist 21 (1977): 557–558. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Purple Martins versus Starlings and House Sparrows in Nest Site Competition.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 10 (1977): 31–35. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Nocturnal Lesser Yellowlegs Migration in North Central Texas.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 10 (1977): 47. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Brown-Headed Cowbird Courting a Purple Martin.” Auk 94 (1977): 395. Print.

Brown, Charles. “A Record of Intraspecific Injury in the Purple Martin.” Bird-Banding 48 (1977): 273. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Unusual Feeding Behavior of a Male Purple Martin.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 10 (1977): 15–16. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Minimum Temperature for Feeding by Purple Martins.” Wilson Bulletin 88 (1976): 672–673. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Use of Gravel by Purple Martins.” Auk 93 (1976): 842. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Brown-Headed Cowbird Flock Aggression toward a Purple Martin.” Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 8 (1975): 11. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Polygamy in the Purple Martin.” Auk 92 (1975): 602–604. Print.

Brown, Charles. “A Second Brood Attempt by the Purple Martin.” Auk 90 (1973): 442. Print.

Book Chapters


Brown, Charles et al. “Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota).” Ed. P. G. Rodewald. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2017. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Purple Martin Progne Subis, Tree Swallow Tachycineta Bicolor, Northern Rough-Winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx Serripennis, Bank Swallow Riparia Riparia, Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon Pyrrhonota, Barn Swallow Hirundo Rustica.” Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. Ed. D. L. Reinking. University of Oklahoma Press, 2004. 284–295. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Avian Coloniality: Progress and Problems.” Current Ornithology. Ed. V. Nolan and C. F. Thompson. Vol. 16. Plenum, 2001. 1–82. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Barn Swallow (Hirundo Rustica).” Birds of North America. Ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Vol. 452. Birds of North America, Inc., 1999. 32. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Purple Martin (Progne Subis).” Birds of North America. Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists’ Union, 1997. 32. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “Cliff Swallow (Hirundo Pyrrhonota).” Birds of North America. Ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists’ Union, 1995. 32. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Optimal Colony Size in Cliff Swallows.” Biology of Animal Behavior. Ed. J. W. Grier and T. Burk. Mosby Year Book, 1992. 398–399. Print.

Brown, Charles, A. Knott, and E. Damrose. “Violet-Green Swallow (Tachycineta Thalassina).” Birds of North America. Ed. A. Poole and F. Gill. Vol. 14. Academy of Natural Sciences and American Ornithologists’ Union, 1992. 12. Print.

Books


Brown, M., S. Dinsmore, and Charles Brown. Birds of Southwestern Nebraska. Conservation and Survey Division, University of Nebraska, 2012. Print.

Brown, Charles, and V. O’Brien. Are Wild Birds Important in the Transport of Arthropod-Borne Viruses? . Vol. 71. American Ornithologists’ Union, 2011. Print.

Brown, Charles. Swallow Summer. University of Nebraska Press, 1998. Print.

Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. Coloniality in the Cliff Swallow: the Effect of Group Size on Social Behavior. Univ. Chicago Press, 1996. Print.

Book Reviews


Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Analyzing Animal Societies: Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis.” 2009: 298. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Ecology and Behavior of Chickadees and Titmice.” 2009: 134–135. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Birds of Nebraska.” 2003: 608–610. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of The Purple Martin.” 2002: 141–142. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Ecology and Evolution of Darwin’s Finches.” 2001: 512. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Bird Nests and Construction Behaviour.” 2001: 515. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Host-Parasite Evolution.” 1999: 456–457. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Polygyny and Sexual Selection in Red-Winged Blackbirds.” 1997: 238–239. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Birds Asleep.” 1990: 254–255. Print.

Brown, Charles. “Book Review of Avian Sociobiology.” 1987: 1590–1591. Print.

Conference Proceeding


Brown, Charles, and M. Brown. “The Evolution of Coloniality: the Importance of Colony Size.” Proceedings of the 22nd International Ornithological Congress. Ed. N. J. Adams and R. H. Slotow. Birdlife South Africa, 1999. 1293–1303. Print.

Other


Brown, Charles. “The Costs and Benefits of Coloniality in the Cliff Swallow.” Princeton University (1985): n. pag. Print.


BIOL 2013 Ecology
BIOL 3164 Field Ecology
BIOL 3170 Ornithology Lab
BIOL 3174 Ornithology
BIOL 4991 Independent Research
BIOL 7013 Research Experience
BIOL 7013 Research Experience
BIOL 7863 Selected Topics in Biology
MSE 7133 Concepts and Applications in Biology