Elmus Beale PhD

Associate Dean for Medical Education

Professor of Community Medicine Oxley College of Health Sciences
Community Medicine
Curriculum Vitae [PDF]


Dr. Beale earned a BS from Oklahoma State University in 1970. He then entered graduate school in physiology at Vanderbilt, but moved in 1972 with his mentor to Baylor College of Medicine where he received his PhD and published his first work in 1977 (J. Biol Chem. 252:6322-6327).

His postdoctoral training was in diabetes and endocrinology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine where he developed expertise in molecular biology. He cloned and sequenced the mRNA and gene encoding PEPCK-C, a key metabolic enzyme that is regulated at the level of transcription by insulin and other factors (J. Biol. Chem. 260:10748-10760). That work enabled deeper study by many in the field.

In 1984 he joined the faculty at Texas Tech University School of Medicine-Lubbock where he developed a research program focused on PEPCK-C regulation and function in adipose tissue in relation to obesity and diabetes. His most significant contribution was the discovery of adipocyte-specific control mechanisms (Mol. Cell. Biol. 12:1007-1020; J. Biol. Chem. 274:13604-13612 and J. Biol. Chem. 276, 30561-30569). He also identified and studied PEPCK and AMP Kinase in C. elegans prior to moving to El Paso and focusing on medical education.

In 2008 he was recruited to the Department of Medical Education at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center-El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine where he was a founding faculty member and professor of anatomy and embryology. Since that time his research has focused on medical education. Dr. Beale’s teaching expertise is broad and includes endocrinology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, human anatomy and embryology. His other areas of expertise include physiology and neuroanatomy. He has several publications in the medical education literature (Anatomical Sciences Education 7:234-41, Clinical Anatomy 27:1038-45, and Medical Science Educator 27: 543-47)

Dr. Beale joined the faculty of The University of Tulsa in 2015. He was honored by being named the Barbara Yetter Roth Chair in Anatomy, and Associate Dean for Medical Education in the Oxley College of Health Sciences.

As part of the University of Oklahoma - University of Tulsa School of Community of Medicine (OU-TU SCM) partnership, he is Adjunct Professor of Cell Biology at The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine.

He teaches anatomy to medical students and physician assistant students at the OU-TU SCM, and to doctorate of nursing practice students at the University of Tulsa.

Over his career, his most significant academically-related public service activities have included memberships on the National Institutes of Health, NIDDK-B Study Section (2008–2013); the Journal of Biological Chemistry Editorial Board (2003–08); the Endocrinology Editorial Board (1989–92); and the Texas State Anatomical Board (2008–2015).

Ph.D., Baylor College Of Medicine
B.S., Oklahoma State University

Dr. Beale's current research focus is on: 1) strategies to promote multiple competencies in the gross anatomy dissection laboratory. These competencies include anatomy, pathology, histology, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, communication, teamwork, and professionalism; and 2) whether abundant low-stakes and formative quizzes improve to learning of anatomy and embryology.

Dr. Beale's teaching expertise includes anatomy, embryology, neuroanatomy, molecular biology, endocrinology and biochemistry.

The following may be selected publications rather than a comprehensive list.

Book Chapters

Granner D, Sasaki K, Andreone T, Beale E. Insulin regulates expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. In: Greep RO, editor. Recent progress in hormone research. Academic Press; 1985. p. 111–141.

Granner D, Beale E. Regulation of the synthesis of tyrosine aminotransferase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase by glucocorticoid hormones. In: Litwack G, editor. Biochemical actions of hormones. Academic Press; 1985. p. 90–139.

Journal Articles

White J, Roberts Z, Gest T, Beale E. Pancreas divisum: A common developmental variant that deserves attention in preclinical medical education. Clinical anatomy. Clinical anatomy; 2014;27(7):1038–1045.

Beale E, Tarwater P, Lee V. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course. Anatomical sciences education. Anatomical sciences education; 2013;7(3):234–241.

Beale E. Embryonic Heart Development in Play-Doh. MedEdPortal. MedEdPortal; 2010;(8300).

McMahon K, Zanescu D, Sood V, Beale E, Prabhakar S. The Role of 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) in Diabetic Nephropathy: A New Direction? Current Enzyme Inhibition. Current Enzyme Inhibition; 2009;5(1):44–50.

Beale E, Harvey B, Forest C. PCK1 and PCK2 as candidate diabetes and obesity genes. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. Cell biochemistry and biophysics; 2007;48(2-3):89–95.

Cadoudal T, Blouin JM, Collinet M, Fouque F, Tan GD, Loizon E, Beale E, Frayn KN, Karpe F, Vidal H, others. Acute and selective regulation of glyceroneogenesis and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in adipose tissue by thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. Diabetologia; 2007;50(3):666–675.

Beale E, Li G, Tan M, Rumbaugh K. Caenorhabditis elegans Senses Bacterial Autoinducers . Appl Environ Microbiol . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ; 2006;72(7):5135–5137.

Nalbant D, Youn H, Nalbant S, Sharma S, Cobos E, Beale E, Du Y, Williams S. FAM20: an evolutionarily conserved family of secreted proteins expressed in hematopoietic cells. BMC genomics. BMC genomics; 2005;6(1):11.

Cadoudal T, Leroyer S, Reis A, Tordjman J, Durant S, Fouque F, Collinet M, Quette J, Chauvet G, Beale E, others. Proposed involvement of adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the metabolic syndrome. Biochimie. Biochimie; 2005;87(1):27–32.

Beale E, Hammer R, Antoine B, Forest C. Disregulated glyceroneogenesis: PCK1 as a candidate diabetes and obesity gene. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism; 2004;15(3):129–135.

Forest C, Beale E. New developments in nutrition and diabetes: glyceroneogenesis comes of age. Biochimie. Biochimie; 2003;85(12):1195–1197.

Tordjman J, Khazen W, Antoine B, Chauvet G, Quette J, Fouque F, Beale E, Benelli C, Forest C. Regulation of glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase by fatty acids, retinoic acids and thiazolidinediones: potential relevance to type 2 diabetes. Biochimie. Biochimie; 2003;85(12):1213–1218.

Tordjman J, Chauvet G, Quette J, Beale E, Forest C, Antoine B. Thiazolidinediones block fatty acid release by inducing glyceroneogenesis in fat cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 2003;278(21):18785–18790.

Forest C, Tordjman J, Glorian M, Duplus E, Chauvet G, Quette J, Beale E, Antoine B, others. Fatty acid recycling in adipocytes: a role for glyceroneogenesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Biochemical Society Transactions. Biochemical Society Transactions; 2003;31(6):1125–1129.

Beale E, Antoine B, Forest C. Glyceroneogenesis in adipocytes: another textbook case. Trends in biochemical sciences. Trends in biochemical sciences; 2003;28(8):402–403.

Beale E, Forest C, Hammer R. Regulation of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression in adipocytes. Biochimie. Biochimie; 2003;85(12):1207–1211.

Zeitouni N, Eubank D, Lee A, Oxford M, Freeman T, Mailliard M, Beale E. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Is Induced in Growth-Arrested Hepatoma Cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Biochemical and biophysical research communications; 2002;290(5):1513–1520.

Eubank D, Williams S, Beale E. C/EBPβ Interacts with the P-enolpyruvate Carboxykinase Adipocyte-Specific Enhancer. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Biochemical and biophysical research communications; 2001;285(3):811–819.

Eubank D, Duplus E, Williams S, Forest C, Beale E. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ and Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II Negatively Regulate the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Promoter via a Common Element. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 2001;276(32):30561–30569.

Glorian M, Duplus E, Beale E, Scott D, Granner D, Forest C. A single element in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene mediates thiazolidinedione action specifically in adipocytes. Biochimie. Biochimie; 2001;83(10):933–943.

Devine J, Eubank D, Clouthier D, Tontonoz P, Spiegelman B, Hammer R, Beale E. Adipose expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter requires peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $γ$ and 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor binding to an adipocyte-specific enhancer in vivo. Journal of biological chemistry. Journal of biological chemistry; 1999;274(19):13604–13612.

Hayward-Lester A, Hewetson A, Beale E, Oefner P, Doris P, Chilton B. Cloning, characterization, and steroid-dependent posttranscriptional processing of RUSH-1 alpha and beta, two uteroglobin promoter-binding proteins. Molecular endocrinology. Molecular endocrinology; 1996;10(11):1335–1349.

Tontonoz P, Hu E, Devine J, Beale E, Spiegelman B. PPAR gamma 2 regulates adipose expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. Molecular and cellular biology. Molecular and cellular biology; 1995;15(1):351–357.

Beale E, Deeb EA, Handley RS, Akhavan-Tafti H, Schaap AP. A rapid and simple chemiluminescent assay for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. BioTechniques. BioTechniques; 1992;12(3):320–323.

Nandan SD, Beale E. Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA in mouse liver, kidney, and fat tissues by fasting, diabetes, and insulin. Laboratory animal science. Laboratory animal science; 1992;42(5):473–477.

Beale E, Tishler E. Expression and regulation of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. Biochemical and biophysical research communications; 1992;189(2):925–930.

Short MK, Clouthier DE, Schaefer IM, Hammer RE, Magnuson MA, Beale E. Tissue-specific, developmental, hormonal, and dietary regulation of rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice. Molecular and cellular biology. Molecular and cellular biology; 1992;12(3):1007–1020.

Beale E, Schaefer I, Li Q. Culture at high density increases phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase messenger RNA in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells. Molecular Endocrinology. Molecular Endocrinology; 1991;5(5):661–669.

Hargrove J, Hulsey M, Beale E. The kinetics of mammalian gene expression. Bioessays. Bioessays; 1991;13(12):667–674.

Selcer K, Lin G-X, Beale E, Leavitt W. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and hepatic CBG mRNA relationships during hamster pregnancy: contribution of decidualization. Biology of reproduction. Biology of reproduction; 1991;44(1):185–190.

Lin G-X, Selcer K, Beale E, GRAY GARY, Leavitt W. Characterization of the Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Response in the Pregnant Hamster. Endocrinology. Endocrinology; 1990;127(4):1934–1940.

Hargrove JL, Hulsey MG, Schmidt FH, Beale E. A computer program for modeling the kinetics of gene expression. Biotechniques. Biotechniques; 1990;8(6):654–659.

Leverence R, Beale E, Granner D. 3-Aminobenzamide inhibits poly (ADP ribose) synthetase activity and induces phospho< i> enol pyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) in H411E hepatoma cells. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics; 1988;260(2):667–673.

Beale E, Koch S, Brotherton A, Sheorain V, Granner D. Insulin decreases H4IIE cell PEPCK mRNA by a mechanism that does not involve cAMP. Diabetes. Diabetes; 1986;35(5):546–549.

Beale E, Chrapkiewicz NB, Scoble HA, Metz RJ, Quick DP, Noble RL, Donelson JE, Biemann K, Granner DK. Rat hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Structures of the protein, messenger RNA, and gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 1985;260(19):10748–10760.

Granner D, Petersen DD, Koch, SR, Sasaki K, Beale E. Multihormonal control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription: the dominant role of insulin. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians; 1984;97:33.

Sasaki K, Cripe TP, Koch, SR, Andreone TL, Petersen DD, Beale E, Granner DK. Multihormonal regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription. The dominant role of insulin. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 1984;259(24):15242–15251.

Beale E, Andreone T, Koch S, Granner M, Granner D. Insulin and glucagon regulate cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) mRNA in rat liver. Diabetes. Diabetes; 1984;33(4):328–332.

Granner D, Andreone T, Sasaki K, Beale E. Inhibition of transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene by insulin. Nature. Nature; 1983;305(5934):549–51.

Andreone TL, Beale E, Bar RS, Granner DK. Insulin decreases phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) mRNA activity by a receptor-mediated process. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 1982;257(1):35–38.

Beale E, Hartley JL, Granner DK. N6, O2’-dibutyryl cycle AMP and glucose regulate the amount of messenger RNA coding for hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 1982;257(4):2022–2028.

Chrapkiewicz NB, Beale E, Granner DK. Induction of the messenger ribonucleic acid coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in H4-II-E cells. Evidence for a nuclear effect of cyclic AMP. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Biological Chemistry; 1982;257(23):14428–14432.

Beale E, Katzen C, Granner D. Regulation of rat liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) messenger ribonucleic acid activity by N6, O2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’, 5’-phosphate. Biochemistry. Biochemistry; 1981;20(17):4878–4883.

Beale E, Dedman J, Means A. Isolation and regulation of the protein kinase inhibitor and the calcium-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase regulator in the Sertoli cell-enriched testis. Endocrinology. Endocrinology; 1977;101(5):1621–34.

Beale E, Dedman JOHN, Means ANTHONY. Isolation and characterization of a protein from rat testis which inhibits cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and phosdiesterase. Journal of biological chemistry. Journal of biological chemistry; 1977;252(18):6322–6327.

JL Lavezo, EG Beale, N Lacy, T Hogg, O Padilla, N Manglik and VY Velasco (2017) Cadaver Biopsies Positively Impact the medical Student Educational Experience, Med.Sci.Educ. 27:543-547.

Journal Article Reviews

Beale E. Insulin Signaling and Insulin Resistance. American Federation for Medical Research-sponsored mini-symposium entitled "Angiotensin-Insulin Cross Talk—A True Translational Story from Bedside to Bench" at the 2011 annual meeting of the American Physiological Society. Journal of investigative medicine; 2013. p. 11–14.

Beale E. 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Experimental Biology and Medicine; 2008. p. 12–20.

Beale E, HAMMER ROBERT, ANTOINE BÉNÉDICTE, FOREST CLAUDE. Glyceroneogenesis comes of age. The FASEB Journal; 2002. p. 1695–1696.

Beale E, Clouthier DE, Hammer RE. Cell-specific expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in transgenic mice. The FASEB journal; 1992. p. 3330–3337.

Conference Proceedings

Beale E, Tarwater P, Lee V. Student performance on embryology exam questions is equivalent for students instructed by a live versus a video lecture format. American Association of Anatomists Annual Meeting, New Orleans. The FASEB Journal; 2009.

Lee M, McMahon K, Sood V, Beale E, Prabhakar S. Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase during early diabetic nephropathy. JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE MEDICINE; 2009. p. 415–416.

Beale E, Boston WL, Venati H, Yasmin R, Desvergne A, Wahli W. The orphan protein, FLJ20276, is a potential tumor marker. FASEB JOURNAL. FASEB JOURNAL; 2003. p. A572–A572.

Eubank DW, Beale E. Cross talk between two PPARgamma response elements on the same promoter. 18th International Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Birmingham, UK, 16-20 July 2000. BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS; 2000. p. A175–A175.


Beale E. Cyclic nucleotide-associated proteins as regulators of the Sertoli cell-enriched testis: a dissertation... Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology. Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology; 1977;

American Association of Anatomists
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
International Association of Medical Science Educators
Endocrine Society
American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA)

DNP 8013 Advanced Anatomy
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